The first camera known as obscura camera was invented in 1015-1021 by an Iraq scientist Ibn al-Haytham. A portable camera was invented by the English scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle in 1660s. However the first camera for practical use was built in 1685 by Johann Zahn. Joseph Nicephore Niepce created the first permanent photograph in 1826 that was made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier. The first color picture was taken by the James clerk Maxwell In 1861.